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Lead Time

Loops and process automation likely affect lead times but there are more factors that impact the lead times in your process. On the PAFnow Lead Time Page you can analyze the duration of specific cases and variants in detail. Highlighted edges are those with a high duration idle time. Duration idle time is the time between two activities excluding the activities’ execution time.


  • Next to the menu, you can see the PAFnow Process Explorer which gives you the opportunity to take a closer look at the lead times in your process.
  • Next to the Process Explorer you can see the distribution of your cases grouped by lead time in a column chart. By clicking one or more bars of that chart you can activate the PAFnow Root Cause Analyzer, which is located right below. You can also activate the PAFnow Lead Time Calculator by clicking the LT Calculator-button in the bottom left corner of the page.
  • On the right side there is the well-known navigation bar (similar to the other pages) including different visual filter and selection elements.

Process Explorer

On the Lead Time Page, you can use the Process Explorer to visualize the durations of specific edges.

The edges highlighted in red are the ones with long durations. The intensity of the color depends on the time. Bright red edges indicate the longest duration time.


In this example the bright red lead time between the Approve PO Level 1 and Post GR is taking 40 days and 20 hours in comparison to the other less long and darker red colored taking process flows also reaching Post GR.

Lead Time Overview

Column Chart

The column chart shows you the percent of cases grouped by duration days:

It can be used to filter your report page by cases grouped by duration days and trigger the Root Cause Analyzer to find out the influencing factors. The number of days per group is calculated dynamically.

Root Cause Analyzer

The PAFnow Root Cause Analyzer helps you to identify the causes of process anomalies and behaviors, with showcasing you automatically generated principle insights. These insights enable you to directly derive actions against a process problem or identify the driving forces of positive process behaviors.

The Root Cause Analyzer only starts an analysis, when you select a process behavior e.g. choose a behavior or an anomaly in a report element (table, pie chart, bar chart, etc.) or from the PAFnow Process Explorer. Your selection then starts an AI-supported calculation of the causes.

Explanations in more detail can be found in the PAFnow Root Cause Analyzer documentation. Below,you find an example of how to use it on the Lead Time Page:


To activate the Root Cause Analyzer simply click on a behavior you want to explain. In this example, we wanted to find the root cause of cases with a lead time of more than 66 days.

The Root Cause Analyzer then creates a picture of various bubbles with one larger bubble in the center. These bubbles indicate different factors that contribute to the inspected behavior. The larger the bubble the more likely the factor has cause the behavior.

In the above seen example we see that paths that end with the most frequent end activity, here HappyPath equal to Happy End, can explain the occurrence of a lead time of more than 66 days with 32.9 percent. Hovering over this bubble using your mouse pointer will open the tooltip that helps you understand the root cause better.

Lead Time Calculator

On the lower left corner of the Report Page you can activate the PAFnow Lead Time Calculator:

With the PAFnow Lead Time Calculator, lead times for individual sections in the process can be calculated. You can choose measuring points flexibly, to comprehend where exactly a process gets caught.


In this example, you can see that the average lead time between Approve PO Level 1 and Create PO is 17 days 7 hours 49 minutes and 29 seconds and it occurred 964 times.

The navigation bar of the Lead Time Report PAge includes a PAFnow Duration Card, a Time Filter visual, the PAFnow Histogram Slicer and a Drillthrough visual.

Lead Time

The PAFnow Duration Card shows your selected lead times. You can decide how granular the format should be (in days, hours, minutes and seconds).

Time Filter

With the Time Filter you are able to filter all your cases within a certain period of time.

Histogram Slicer

The PAFnow Histogram Slicer gives you an overview of how long your cases need to complete the process. You can use this information as a basis to filter further and only select the cases that are interesting to your analysis.

Drilltrough by VariantId

You can drillthrough and investigate different cases for each variant ID based on the frequency of duration days using the Drillthrough visual.